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Science Overview 

Clinical Research on AndoSan

Clinical research has been conducted with several of Norway's leading research institutions on AndoSan: Oslo University Hospital (OUS), Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Pharmaceutical institute (NIPH), and Norwegian University of Life Sciences and Technology (NMBU). These studies have clearly indicated that AndoSan has immunomodulating effects. Studies have explored potential applications in cancer treatment, treatment of chronic inflammations such as IBD, and alleviating allergy and asthma symptoms. A U.S. patent concerning the use of AndoSan to inhibit the activity of cancer-promoting enzyme legumain was granted in 2020.

Human Clinical Studies

  • Hetland G, Tangen JM, Mahmood F, Mirlashari MR, Nissen-Meyer LSH, Nentwich I, Therkelsen SP, Tjønnfjord GE, Johnson E. Antitumor, Anti-Inflammatory and CA  Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies. Nutrients. 2020 May 8;12(5):1339. doi:  10.3390/nu12051339. PMID: 32397163; PMCID: PMC7285126.  - Note:  This review includes a five-year survival follow-up RCT study (Fig. 1) of  multiple myeloma patients treated with Andosan.  

  • Mahmood F, Hetland G, Nentwich I, Mirlashari MR, Ghiasvand R, Nissen-Meyer  LSH. Agaricus blazei-Based Mushroom Extract Supplementation to Birch Allergic - Blood Donors: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Nutrients. 2019 Oct 2;11(10):2339. doi:  10.3390/nu11102339.PMID: 31581605; PMCID: PMC6836217.  

  • Tangen JM, Tjønnfjord GE, Gulbrandsen N, Gedde-Dahl T, Stormorken E, Anderson  K, Vo CD, Schjesvold FH; For Oslo Myeloma Center. Improved outcome in patients  following autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma in  southeastern Norway 2001-2010: a retrospective, population-based analysis. BMC  Cancer. 2018 Aug 8;18(1):801. doi: 10.1186/s12885-018-4722-x. PMID: 30089450;  PMCID: PMC6083560.  – Note:  The Andosan RCT study is included in this retrospective study on outcome after treatment for Norwegian multiple myeloma  patients.  

  • Therkelsen SP, Hetland G, Lyberg T, Lygren I, Johnson E. Cytokine Levels After  Consumption of aMedicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract,  AndoSan™, in Patients with Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized single-blinded Placebo-Controlled Study. Scand J Immunol. 2016 Dec;84(6):323- 331. doi: 10.1111/sji.12476. PMID: 27588816.  

  • Therkelsen SP, Hetland G, Lyberg T, Lygren I, Johnson E. Effect of the Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract,AndoSan™, on Symptoms, Fatigue, and Quality of Life in Patients with Crohn’s Disease in a Randomized single- blinded Placebo-Controlled Study. PLoS One. 2016 Jul 14;11(7):e0159288. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0159288. PMID: 27415795; PMCID: PMC4944955.  

  • Hetland G, Biedron R, Hetland A, Badmaev V. Andosan™: An optimal biological  response modifier and health-promoting ingredient prepared from Agaricus blazei mushroom. Nova Science Pub Inc. New York 2014, pp 1-71. ISBN: 978-1-63117-130- 7.   –Note:  This book contains a semi-quantitative survey after 3 months’ intake in  2012 of Andosan in professional swimmers in Ann Arbor, MI, USA.  

  • Johnson E, Førland DT, Hetland G, Sætre L, Olstad OK, Lyberg T. Effect of AndoSan™ on the expression of adhesion molecules and production of reactive oxygen species  in human monocytes and granulocytes in vivo. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2012  Sep;47(8-9):984-92. doi: 10.3109/00365521.2012.660544. Epub 2012 May 8. PMID:  22564240. 

  • Førland DT, Johnson E, Saetre L, Lyberg T, Lygren I, Hetland G. Effect of an extract based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on the expression of  cytokines and calprotectin in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.  Scand J Immunol. 2011 Jan;73(1):66-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3083.2010.02477.x.  PMID: 21129005.  

  • Johnson E, Førland DT, Saetre L, Bernardshaw SV, Lyberg T, Hetland G. Effect of an extract based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill on the release of  cytokines, chemokines and leukocyte growth factors in human blood ex vivo and in  vivo. Scand J Immunol. 2009 Mar;69(3):242-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3083.2008.02218.x. PMID: 19281536.  

  • Grinde B, Hetland G, Johnson E. Effects on gene expression and viral load of a medicinal extract from Agaricus blazei in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.  Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Aug;6(8):1311-4. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2006.04.005.  Epub 2006 May 11. PMID: 16782544.  

Preclinical Studies (in Vivo & In Vitro Data)

  • Vivacell Biotechnology. Studies in a cell assay model of SARS-CoV-2 revealed that AndoSan, at increasing concentrations, reduced the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins (Unique for the SARS virus) to ACE2 receptors by up to 40%. 2022, unpublished results.

  • Tangen JM, Holien T, Mirlashari MR, Misund K, Hetland G. Cytotoxic Effect on  Human Myeloma Cells and Leukemic Cells by the Agaricus blazei Murill Based  Mushroom Extract, Andosan™. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:2059825. doi: 10.1155/2017/2059825. Epub 2017 Nov 7. PMID: 29238712; PMCID: PMC5697368.  

  • Hetland G, Eide DM, Tangen JM, Haugen MH, Mirlashari MR, Paulsen JE. The Agaricus blazei-Based Mushroom Extract, Andosan™, Protects against Intestinal  Tumorigenesis in the A/J Min/+ Mouse. PLoS One. 2016 Dec 21;11(12):e0167754.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167754. PMID: 28002446; PMCID: PMC5176274  

  • Berven L, Karppinen P, Hetland G, Samuelsen AB. The polar high molecular weight  fraction of the Agaricus blazei Murill extract, AndoSan™, reduces the activity of the tumor-associated protease, legumain, in RAW 264.7 cells. J Med Food. 2015  Apr;18(4):429-38. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2014.0018. Epub 2014 Aug 19. 

  • Tangen JM, Tryggestad AMA, Hetland G. Stimulation of human monocytic cells by  the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill induces expression of cell surface  markers associated with activation and antigen presentation. Applied Scientific Reports. 2014; doi:10.7243/2054-9903-1-1.  

  • Ellertsen LK, Hetland G. An extract of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill can protect against allergy. Clin Mol Allergy. 2009 May 5;7:6. doi:  10.1186/1476-7961-7-6. PMID: 19416507; PMCID: PMC2688003.  

  • Bernardshaw S, Lyberg T, Hetland G, Johnson E. Effect of an extract of the  mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on the expression of adhesion molecules and production of reactive oxygen species in monocytes and granulocytes in human  whole blood ex vivo. APMIS. 2007 Jun;115(6):719-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1600- 0463.2007.apm_619.x. PMID: 17550380.  

  • Bernardshaw S, Hetland G, Grinde B, Johnson E. An extract of the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill protects against lethal septicemia in a mouse model of fecal peritonitis. Shock. 2006 Apr;25(4):420-5. doi:  10.1097/01.shk.0000209526.58614.92. PMID: 16670646.  

  • Bernardshaw S, Hetland G, Ellertsen LK, Tryggestad AM, Johnson E. An extract of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murilldifferentially stimulates the  production of proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytes and human vein  endothelial cells in vitro. Inflammation. 2005 Dec;29(4-6):147-53. doi:  10.1007/s10753-006-9010-2. PMID: 17091395.  

  • Ellertsen LK, Hetland G, Johnson E, Grinde B. Effect of a medicinal extract from Agaricus blazei Murill on gene expression in a human monocyte cell line as  examined by microarrays and immuno assays. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006  Feb;6(2):133-43. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2005.07.007. Epub 2005 Sep 8. PMID:  16399618.  

Biocompatibility Data

  • For all clinical studies– in healthy volunteers, IBD patients, multiple myeloma patients, blood donors with pollen allergy, and asthma, there were no serious side effects. The treatment period was 60 ml/day for two weeks in healthy volunteers, for three weeks in IBD patients, and seven weeks in multiple myeloma patients, and two months in allergics.

Other Publications

  • Hetland G, Johnson E, Bernardshaw SV, Grinde B. Can medicinal mushrooms have a prophylactic or therapeutic effect against COVID-19 and its pneumonic superinfection and complicating inflammation? Scand J Immunol. 2021 Jan;93(1):e12937. doi: 10.1111/sji.12937. Epub 2020 Jul 29. PMID: 32657436; PMCID: PMC7404338.

  • LK Ellertsen and G Hetland. An extract of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei  Murill can protect against allergy. Ch 4 In: Recent advances in plant-based, tradition, and natural medicines. Apple Academic Press and CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Eds. A Velmulpad, J Jamie. 2014 Toronto, New Jersy ISBN 978-1-77188-013-8. 

  • Ingvaldsen, Ingeborg Almås Master's theses (KBM), 2014, Norges miljø- og  biovitenskapelige universitet / Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science (KBM) Proteiner i det medisinske  soppekstraktet AndoSan™  

  • Pernille Karppinen: Master thesis 2013 at Pharmaceutical Institute, University of  Oslo/ Norwegian University of Life Sciences Institutt for kjemi, bioteknologi og  matvitenskap: Search for biologically active compounds in AndoSan™, a medicinal  mushroom extract PMC3168293.  

  • G Hetland, E Johnson, DM Eide, B grinde, ABC Samuelsen, HG Wiker. Antimicrobial effects of â-glucans and pectin and of Agaricus blazei-based mushroom extract,  Andosan™. Examples of mouse models for pneumococcal-, fecalbacterial-, and  mycobacterial infections. In: Microbial pathogens and strategies for combating them:  science,technology, and education. Vol. 2  (A. Mendez-Vilas Ed.) FORMATEX 2013,  Microbiology Book Series #4. Badajoz, Spain. ISBN-13 Vol. 2: 978-84-942134-0-3.    

  • G. Hetland G. Agaricus bM mushroom may protect athletes against inflammation,  infection, and asthma. Ch 17, In Mushrooms: Types, Properties, and Nutrition. Eds: S Andres and N Baumann. 2012. Nova Science Pub Inc. ISBN 987-1-61470-110-1 Biedron R, Tangen JM, Maresz K, Hetland G. Agaricus blazei Murill –  

  • immunomodulatory properties and health benefits. Review. Funct Foods Health Dis  2012, 2(11):428-47. 

  • Hetland G, Johnson E, Lyberg T, Kvalheim G. The Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill  Elicits Medicinal Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation through Its  Modulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and  Inflammation. Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2011;2011:157015. doi: 10.1155/2011/157015.  Epub 2011 Sep 6. PMID: 21912538; PMCID:   

  • Hetland G. An Agaricus blazei Murill-based mushroom extract may be beneficial for athletes because it protects against inflammation, infection, and allergy. Abstract 021, p55.XIth Int Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming. Oslo June  2010. PL Kjendlie, RKStallman & J Cabri (Eds). ISBN 978—82-502-0448-5.  

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